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World War II: 1939 ~ 1945
United States of America (All Branches)
Named Lots & Groupings

A0319
Selling Price: $385 - Postage in the U.S.A. is: $8
ARMY FLIGHT NURSE FLIGHT LOG BOOK WITH (3) COMBAT OKINAWA LOGS!
LT. DORIS l. CAMPBELL: 827TH & 829TH MEDICAL AIR EVACUATION SQUADRONS (MAES)
First, it is a fact that Flight Nurses were not supposed to, not obliged to keep "Pilot Log Books" but this woman did. They were flight crew, plain and simple - not pilots. That makes this log really significant, as there are few existing records of actual flight made by these daring pioneer women in medicine.

To begin, flights contain 13 logged entries starting between July the 28TH of 1944 within various stateside locations that take place until the 18th of September 1944. Lots of those beginning entries contain crew and pilot information as well for those particular flights. Locations entered are: Romulus, New York, Mitchell, Topeka, Memphis, Jackson Ms., Dallas, Tempe, San Antonio, El Paso, Long Beach, Mills Field, Hamilton Field, Palm Bay and Santa Fe then Hickham in Hawaii.

The real action begins on the 10TH of October with a trip to Hickham in Hawaii. From that point on, she is in theatre flying in combat zones and evacuations. Exotic locations listed as having been flown to on Medical Evacuation of other flight missions are:

Note that I have added the dates which the associated battles which took place in brackets. All these battle locations were flown into by Doris after the hostilities ended, with the exception of Okinawa.

Johnston Atoll [Used as a refueling point for aircraft and submarines during World War II, it was harassed by submarines firing flares on several occasions leading up to and just after being shelled by Japanese submarines on 15 December 1941, but the series of four coral islands were never Japanese troop assaulted, nor captured];

Tarawa [Battle took place between 20 November 1943 and 23 November 1943];

Kwajalein [Battle took place between 31 January 1944 and 03 February 1944];

Los Negros [Battle took place between 29 February 1944 and 29 February 1944];

Biak [Battle took place between 27 May 1944 and 22 June 1944];

Saipan [Battle took place between 27 May 1944 and 22 June 1944];

Guam [Battle took place between 21 July 1944 and 10 August 1944];

Leyte [Battle took place between 23 October 1944 and 26 October 1944];

Okinawa [Battle took place between 1 April 1945 and 21 June 1945]

>>> Doris flew her first direct logged 7 hour 25 minute combat mission from Guam to Okinawa on the 12TH of May 1945 was flown between 16:05 and 23:30 hours.

>>> Doris' return to Guam from that Okinawa combat mission was 7 hour 23 minutes in duration and took off exactly 45 minutes after loading casualties on the 13TH of May 1945. It was flown between 01:15 and 09:03 hours.

>>> Her second 7 hour 50 minute combat mission from Guam to Okinawa on the 24/25TH of May 1945 was flown between 19:05 and 02:55 hours.

>>> Doris' return to Guam from that Okinawa combat mission was 7 hour 25 minutes in duration and took off exactly 2 hours and 55 minutes after loading casualties on the 25TH of May 1945. It was flown between 05:50 and 13:15 hours.

>>> Her final 8 hour 15 minute combat mission from Guam to Okinawa on the 21ST of June 1945 landed some time just around midnight, as was the routine to avoid enemy fire.

>>> Doris' return to Guam from her last Okinawa combat mission was 7 hours exactly in duration and took off some time in the early morning about 01:30 or so on the 22ND of June 1945.

Manila [Battle took place between 3 February 1945 and 3 March 1945]. She also flew to Hamilton Army Airfield (Ham.).

This is a superbly rare item for a flight nurse to have kept. It is in excellent shape and complete with no pages missing. I specialize in Flight Nurse items and this is a winner. I have never seen another log book, especially with actual combat time.

The lot comes with an Officers Notebook full of personal notes and three MAES oriented printed papers and her personal address book.

As to history:

During WWII, more than 59,000 American Nurses served in the Army Nurse Corps "ANC", with just slightly over 900 active on 7 December 1941. When assigned to the US Army Air Forces "AAF", Nurses entered one of 11 AAF Training Centers for 4 weeks of military training and physical conditioning. By 1944 over 6,500 were in the AAF.

After 6 months in an AAF Hospital, nurses could apply for Flight Nurse training. If they met the requirements, they were sent to the "School of Air Evacuation" at Bowman Field in Kentucky for 8 weeks training that emphasized crash procedures, field survival in ocean, jungle, desert, and arctic environments, and the effects of high altitude on various types of patients. Flight Nurses were in peak physical condition and were awarded 2" gold wings with a large medical Caducei and letter "N" superimposed.

Between June the 1st of 1943 and October the 15th of 1944 the 26th AAF Base Unit AAF School of Air Evacuation at Bowman Field in Kentucky graduated a total of one thousand and forty-nine (1,049) Flight Nurses. Class 44D graduated on May the 24th of 1944 (Obit of "Connie" W. Oestrike 830TH MAES - on Dec 30, 2006 at John Dempsey Hospital) and the last class to graduate at Bowman was class 44F in October of 1944. Although Class 44G had already begun its training at Bowman, members of that class were each transferred to a new training facility at Randolph Field in Texas where the 27th AAF School of Aviation Medicine had assumed the mission of conducting Air Evacuation training. The members of class 44G completed and graduated as the first class from the Randolph Field location. 44G was not only the first class at Randolph to graduate, but the last regularly organized class at Bowman to have conducted training there as well.

Unfortunately, there are no additional statistics to calculate exactly how many Flight Nurses graduated from Randolph Field between October the 16th of 1944 when Class 44G resumed training at Randolph Field and the 15th of August in 1945 when all WWII hostilities officially ceased. I do have a class photo of Class 45N at Randolph that is dated as:18 SEPT 45 Class 45N. The only statistic available is poorly constructed, where Randolph Field records 638 Flight Nursed graduating between October the 16th of 1944 and sometime in October of 1950. That statistic does not help to isolate purely WWII graduates.

Another strong hint of actual numbers is from an article that appeared on Saturday, October the 6th of 2001 in the Daytona Daily News when it stated that: 'Between 1942 and the end of 1944, 1,514 Nurses and 907 enlisted men trained and 18 air medical evacuation squadrons were formed.'

Bear in mind that initially, the course of instruction at Bowman was four trivial ad-hoc weeks in duration. Then, in February of 1943 the instructions were expanded to a six week course. Later, in November of 1943 an eight weeks curriculum became the norm. There were some latter classes that occupied a nine week cycle. If the tempo of graduations at Randolph Field was as consistent as previously held instructions at Bowman, then a class of Flight Nurses graduated every eight weeks (56 days) or perhaps nine weeks (63 days) on average. The way class numbers were organized at all training facilities during WWII was by the year they began and then a letter was affixed as a suffix in strict alphabetic order. That is why 44G graduated in 1945, because they "began" during the year 1944 as the 7th class (the letter "G" being the 7th letter in the alphabet).

At Randolph field, it is known that Class 45C graduated on the 14th of April in 1945. That reflects exactly 181 days of operation from between October the 16th of 1944 and the graduation of Class 45C on the 14th of April in 1945. Even if we include a half cycle (.5) for the remainder of class 44G to have finished their training, you then have a total of three point five (3.5) classes graduating in those first 181 days of operation at Randolph Field, or 51.7 days per class. That lines up very nicely with an eight week training cycle of 56 days in duration.

If we keep the same operational tempo to figure out the remaining days that Randolph Field operated between the day after Class 45C graduated, which would be the 15th of April in 1945 until the 15th of August in 1945 when all WWII hostilities officially ceased. That is 122 days. By applying the same math, we find that two additional classes and a fractional remainder (.17) could have graduated in that time span. I therefore calculate a pretty solid estimate of six classes of Flight Nurses graduating from Randolph Field in Texas between October the 16th of 1944 and August the 15th of 1945.

Those would be Class 44G, Class 45A, Class 45B, Class 45C on the 14th of April in 1945, Class 45D and Class 45E. I also estimate that Class 45F (our .17 remainder) was in progress when the war ended, but graduated sometime after August the 15th of 1945. In addition, one source from the Flight Nurse association quotes an average class size as 30 nurses. Even if we calculate that seventh remaining Class 45F into our statistics, that would be 30 persons per class them multiplied by those estimated seven classes, resulting in 210 Flight Nurses graduating during WWII from Randolph Field in Texas.

The true answer may lie in some obscure file at Maxwell Air Force base awaiting inspection. For now, I've scoured sources for years and have consistently come up with nil evidence to support anything concrete. It is my personal opinion that some number like 210 Flight Nurses graduated from Randolph Field between October the 16th of 1944 and VJ day on the 15th of August in 1945. This is to include the transitional Class 44G who resumed training at Randolph Field. That would make approximately 1,250 WWII graduated Flight Nurses in service during WWII.

Remember, many Flight Nurses graduated, but not all went to serve in Medical Air Evacuation Squadrons (MAES). Nor did all fly in theatres of war. There was attrition, end of tours of duty, normal rotations, other assignments, foreign trained nurses that attended the courses then left for their home countries and other factors that consumed this total number of 1,250 Flight Nurses. Flight Nurses continued operating within MAES units after the war ended as casualties still needed transportation inter-continent and within the USA.

The inception of Flight Nurse operations preceded the official School of Air Evacuation, which only began a didactic course of study on June the 1st of 1943. Before then, MAES units were operating ad-hoc. The 802nd MAES was the first Air Evacuation Squadron to serve in any theater of war in North African Combat Zone. The 801st followed suit in the Pacific area and by June of 1942, the 804th MAES also arrived in New Guinea.

The School of Aviation Medicine at Bowman was therefore officially created on the 1st of June in 1943 to "standardize" the training of personnel under authority of Commanding General, First Troop Carrier Command. Some members of those first two MAES units received no training. Others passed briefly through Bowman and received what was considered a haphazard "Crash Course" consisting of basic training, squadron administration, the use of the litter and loading of air evac aircraft.

One such class is known to have been conducted between the 21st of December in 1942 and the 10th of January in 1943. All personnel, with the exception of the 801st and 802nd MAES (who were deemed trained by the 349th Air Evacuation Group) were graduated from the School of Air Evacuation. The personnel of the 80lst and 802nd MAES were not so graduated because the training of these units was meager and totally inadequate compared with the training of other squadrons after January of 1943. The early 801st and 802nd MAES were stated to have been "rush jobs" since personnel were desperately needed overseas and training was cut short. They learned more by experience while in a combat zone and were early pioneers who later returned to the school of Air Evacuation once a regular course of instruction was established.

The entire 1942 time period was purely one of experimentation with Air Evacuation. Because of the proximity of Bowman Field in Kentucky to First Troop Carrier Command Headquarters in Indianapolis, lndiana, it was decided to establish a training program there using the 38th Air Ambulance Battalion organization as the nucleus for the first unit. On September the 28th of 1942, the Squadron consisting of 138 enlisted men and 2 officers reported to Bowman Field in Kentucky and was assigned to the First Troop Carrier Command. On Oct. 1, 1942 the squadron was re-designated as the 507th Air Evacuation Squadron, still under the direction of the Troop Carrier Command.

That unit was hurriedly trained, and from it, 6 nurses and 15 enlisted men were assigned with 2 Flight Surgeons for the huge Texas Maneuvers. The 349th Air Evacuation Group, Headquarters and Headquarters Squadron was activated Oct. 6, 1942. The group consisted of 9 medical officers; 2 nurses in addition to the enlisted men. On November 11th of 1942, the 620th 621st and 622nd Air Evacuation Squadrons were activated and assigned to the 349th Air Evac Group.

Then, in late November of 1942, the War Department directed the 349th to train Flight Surgeons, Flight Nurses, and enlisted men for air evacuation duty aboard cargo carriers, and authorized new tables of organization for the basic unit, the Medical Squadron Air Evacuation Transport. Although scant information exists as to exact class graduation dates during this ad-hoc training period, the first regularly organized Bowman class 43A graduated on February the 18th of 1943.

That first formal graduation of Flight Nurses of the 349th Air Evac Group was held at the base chapel at Bowman Field. The 30 members of this group had completed a mere four week program of instruction that was definitely in the experimental stage. 2nd Lt. Geraldine Dishroon was the honor graduate and received the first pair of Flight Nurses wings from General David Grant, Air Surgeon. They really weren't Flight Nurse wings as we know that insignia to be today.

What occurred was that General Grant unpinned his own miniature Flight Surgeon wings and pinned them on Geraldine. At the time, there were no official Flight Nurse wings in either the design planning stages. General Grant remarked that the insignia of the Flight Nurse would be similar to that of the Flight Surgeon, with the addition of a small "N" superimposed over the caduceus (the winged Staff with two Snakes entwined as carried by the Greek god Hermes). Having thus created this insignia without proper authority, General Grant found resistance in having it manufactured. At an undisclosed time, woman began to receive the insignia. Nobody knows exactly when the War Department allowed that new wing to be approval, then produced, then issued.

Some interesting facts:

Reba Z. Whittle was the first flight nurse to be imprisoned by the Germans and the first repatriated. She died in 1981 of cancer.

First slacks worn by Flight Nurses aboard aircraft were designed by Major Mary Leontine (I own Major Mary Leontine's Gold Flight Nurse wings and dress uniform) and Captain Ed McBride at Dayton, Ohio.

The first uniforms for Flight Nurses were designed at Wright Patterson Field with the assistance of Major William Jordan, Captain Grace Mundell, Lieutenant Geraldine Dishroon (the same honor graduate of class 43A) and a Lieutenant Westmoreland. The uniform was gray blue in color and consisted of an Eisenhower style short jacket, a blue skirt, trousers and overseas cap. The cap was bound in maroon braid. A maroon tie were worn with it the uniform.

Ethel Guffey received the first sequentially numbered diploma (all diplomas were numbered) as part of the first graduating class 43A and afterwards.

The 803rd MAES was attached to the 14th AF "Flying Tigers" in China.

Lieutenant Colonel John R. McGraw of the Army Medical Corps became the first Commandant of Bowman organized School and Captain Mary Leontine (I own Major Mary Leontine's Gold Flight Nurse wings and dress uniform) was appointed as Principal Chief Nurse, with Lieutenant Leora B. Stroup as Instructor of the Department of Aviation Medicine and Nursing. Seventeen Flight Nurses were killed in WWII. The first "documented" death of a U.S. Army Flight Nurse in duty circumstances was upon the 1ST of November in 1944 when Aleda Lutz was lost over Lyon, Italy. But that is only because Eloise Richardson was lost over waters between Bouganville and Guadalcanal on 18 May of 1944 but not declared dead until much later than that of Aleda.



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